Filtered index lookups

How to quickly retrieve indexed records from streams

Beneath automatically indexes records for fast lookup and filtering by key. Check out Unified data system to learn more about the different formats Beneath stores data in.

What can you filter?

Indexes in Beneath enable fast (milliseconds) single-key lookup and range-based filtering. The index only contains one record for each key – if a stream contains multiple records with the same key, the index will contain the most recent record for the key.

You can only filter records based on their schema key (see Schema definition).

For schema keys composed of multiple fields, the index must be used left-to-right. For example, if the schema key is (user_id, time), you can only filter by time for a specific user, not all users.

Filter syntax

We use a JSON-based query syntax for filters. Assume we have a schema:

type StockPrice @schema {
  symbol: String! @key
  time: Timestamp! @key
  price_usd: Float

Filtering for a key field:

{ "symbol": "AAPL" }

returns all stock prices for symbol AAPL.

Filtering for a compound key:

{ "symbol": "AAPL", "day": "2020-03-11T19:00:00" }

returns the stock price for symbol AAPL at 7pm on 11th March 2020.

Filtering for a range in a compound key:

{ "symbol": "AAPL", "day": { "_gte": "2020-03-09", "_lt": "2020-03-16" } }

returns all stock prices for symbol AAPL between 9th and 16th March 2020 (_gte means “greater than or equal to” and _lt means “less than”).

Filtering by prefix:

{ "symbol": { "_prefix": "A" } }

returns all stock prices for all symbols starting with A.

Representing data types as JSON

Not every schema field type can be natively represented in JSON. The table below shows how to encode Beneath’s supported data types in JSON:

Type Definition
Boolean Supported in JSON
Int Supported in JSON
Float Supported in JSON
String Supported in JSON
Bytes Base64-encoded string
Numeric String containing an integer
Timestamp Multiple options:
  • Integer of milliseconds since 1970 (Unix time)
  • String with date, time and timezone: "2006-01-02T15:04:05Z07:00" (RFC3339)
  • String with date and time: "2006-01-02T15:04:05"
  • String with date: "2006-01-02"
Enums String containing the enum constant